# How the pattern is formed in Michelson interferometer?

## How the pattern is formed in Michelson interferometer?

The fringes formed in Michelson interferometer may be circular, curved or straight depending upon the nature of the air film. Concentric circular fringes (fringes of equal inclination): Concentric circular fringes are obtained when the air film is parallel as shown in Fig.

## How is Michelson interferometer used to determine the difference in wavelength of the two D lines of sodium?

Explanation: The two beams of a Michelson interferometer interfere constructively when the waves add in phase and destructively when they add out of phase, producing circular interference fringes as a result. From this we can calculate wavelength of sodium source.

Which lens is used in Michelson interferometer?

convex lens
In the lab, you will use a convex lens to disperse a laser light source. With a dispersed beam, the interferometer produces an interference pattern on the screen instead of a single point. Figure 3 shows the path of a dispersed laser beam at an exaggerated angle.

### What is Michelson interferometer and its uses?

A Michelson interferometer is a tool used to produce interference between two beams of light. It is the most common design for optical interferometry and the first interferometer invented, by Albert Abraham Michelson in the late 19th century.

### Why are fringes circular in Michelson interferometer?

The locus of the light passing through the lens , of equal intensity depends upon the thickness of the air gap between the lens and the glass plate. Since the air film thickness is constant in the shape of a circle , Hence the newton rings formed are circular in shape,and not in square or any other shape.

How do you find the wavelength of sodium light using Michelson interferometer?

1. To find out the difference in wavelength of D1 and D2 lines of sodium light. Wavelength separation λ1 – λ2 = λ2 / 2D
2. To determine the wavelength of monochromatic light. The wavelength of laser is calculated by;
3. To measure refractive index of transparent materials.

## Why convex lens is used in Michelson interferometer?

In the lab, you will use a convex lens to disperse a laser light source. With a dispersed beam, the interferometer produces an interference pattern on the screen instead of a single point.

## Which mirror is fixed in Michelson interferometer?

The incident beam is therefore split into two beams; one beam is transmitted toward the movable mirror (M1), the other is reflected toward the fixed mirror (M2). Both mirrors reflect light directly back toward the beam- splitter.

How does the Michelson interferometer cause interference?

The Michelson interferometer causes interference by splitting a beam of light into two parts. Each part is made to travel a diﬀerent path and brought back together where they interfere according to their path length diﬀerence.

### Are Michelson interferometers tunable narrow band filters?

When used as a tunable narrow band filter, Michelson interferometers exhibit a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared with competing technologies such as Fabry–Pérot interferometers or Lyot filters.

### How does an interferometer work?

(Figure) depicts the interferometer and the path of a light beam from a single point on the extended source S, which is a ground-glass plate that diffuses the light from a monochromatic lamp of wavelength . The beam strikes the half-silvered mirror M, where half of it is reflected to the side and half passes through the mirror.

How to use a laser interferometer to measure contrast?

Cross two polarizers and place them in the two arm of the interferometer. Rotate the laser in its mount to adjust equal intensity of light after the polarizers in the two arms. This will ensure that two interfering beams reaching the screen have equal intensity, which in principle should give maximum contrast. No fringes are observed.