What causes gingiva to enlarge?

What causes gingiva to enlarge?

Inflammatory gum enlargement Gingival hyperplasia can occur as a direct result of inflammation. The inflammation is often caused by plaque buildup on the teeth from food, bacteria, and poor hygiene practices. The inflammation can make the gums tender and red, and it can trigger bleeding.

What causes false gingival enlargement?

Presence of local irritants (plaque and calculus) could be primary or associated cause of gingival enlargements. Hence, plaque control is an essential aspect of management in all the patients.

What are the most common drugs that cause gingival enlargement?


  • Drugs are the most common reason behind gingival enlargements.
  • Phenytoin (PHT, or 5,5-diphenylhydantoin), sodium valproate, phenobarbitone, vigabatrin, primidone, mephenytoin, and ethosuximide are some of the drugs that cause gingival hypertrophy.

How is gingival enlargement treated?

What is the treatment for gingival hyperplasia?

  1. Removal of bacterial plaque by thorough tooth brushing and flossing.
  2. Antiseptic mouthwashes such as chlorhexidine.
  3. Ultrasonic treatments.
  4. Courses of antibiotics to reduce oral bacterial load (e.g. erythromycin or azithromycin)

What causes gingiva?

The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene that encourages plaque to form on teeth, causing inflammation of the surrounding gum tissues. Here’s how plaque can lead to gingivitis: Plaque forms on your teeth.

What causes bulbous gingiva?

There are several causes of gingival enlargement and they can be grouped into four categories: 1) inflammatory gingival enlargement, 2) medication-induced gingival enlargement, 3) hereditary gingival fibromatosis, and 4) systemic causes of gingival enlargement.

What drugs causes gingival hyperplasia?

One class of drugs known to cause gingival hyperplasia is calcium channel blockers….Other drugs that can cause gingival hyperplasia are:

  • amlodipine (Norvasc)
  • ethosuximide (Zarontin.
  • lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • nifedipine (Adalat)
  • phenobarbitone (Luminal)
  • primidone (Mysoline)
  • topiramate (Topamax)
  • vigabatrin (Sabril)

Which drugs can cause gingival hyperplasia?

Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a side effect associated principally with 3 types of drugs: anticonvulsant (phenytoin), immunosuppressant (cyclosporine A), and various calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem).

Why does cyclosporine cause gingival enlargement?

Conclusion: Data collected demonstrate that cyclosporine inhibits the secretion of matrix proteases, contributing to the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in the gingival connective tissue, causing gingival overgrowth.

Does gingival enlargement go away?

In some cases, some other diseases can also cause gingival hyperplasia. Hormonal imbalance during pregnancy is one of these conditions. Diabetes, anemia, and HIV can also cause gingival hyperplasia. Once you get treated for these underlying conditions, gingival hyperplasia also goes away.

What causes gingival inflammation?

Gingiva become inflamed (gingivitis). The longer that plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more they irritate the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth, causing inflammation. In time, your gums become swollen and bleed easily. Tooth decay (dental caries) also may result.

What causes infection in gums?

Gum infections occur due to a buildup of bacteria in and around the gums. People can take steps to help prevent gum infections, such as practicing good oral hygiene and avoiding tobacco. Seeing a dentist for regular checkups is also important because they can help break away tartar to prevent infection.

What are the causes of gingival enlargement?

Gingival enlargement is the overgrowth of the gingiva characterized by an expansion and accumulation of the connective tissue with occasional presence of increased number of cells. It is caused by several factors, such as, inflammation, leukemia, drugs and inheritance. 4.

What is the meaning of gingival hyperplasia?

Terminologies  Gingival Enlargement: An overgrowth or increase in size of the gingiva  Gingival Hyperplasia: An enlargement of the gingiva due to an increase in the number of cells  Gingival Hypertrophy: An enlargement of the gingiva due to an increase in the size of cells (According to the Glossary of Periodontal Terms, 4th Edition, 2001) 5.

What causes inflammation of the gingiva?

Etiology Acute inflammatory gingival enlargement results from bacteria carried deep into the tissues when foreign substances such as a toothbrush bristle, a piece of apple core, or a lobster shell fragment is forcefully embedded into the gingiva. (Lesion is confined to gingiva). 14.

What are the signs and symptoms of enlarged gingiva?

•Enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and almost leathery in consistency and has a characteristic minutely pebbled surface. •Severe cases- teeth are almost completely covered & enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. •The jaws appear distorted because of the bulbous enlargement of the gingiva.