What causes Treponematosis?
Treponematosis, also known as treponemiasis, traditionally refers to the group of nonvenereal diseases (including endemic syphilis [nonvenereal syphilis]) caused by Treponema species that are morphologically and serologically identical to each other and to Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the cause of venereal …
How is endemic syphilis treated?
Yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis are treated with azithromycin or penicillin G benzathine. Alternatives are appropriate only if penicillin cannot be used. Tetracyclines or chloramphenicol have been used. Treatment failures with penicillin have been reported, but reinfection could not be ruled out.
Can rabbit syphilis be cured?
Syphilis in rabbits is treatable through antibiotic therapy, following the treatment lesions can be expected to heal from 10-14 days.
Is late latent syphilis contagious?
Late latent syphilis is ordinarily not infectious, except for pregnant women, who can transmit infection to the fetus after many years. Most cases of latent syphilis are most accurately called latent syphilis of unknown duration and should be treated in the same manner as late latent syphilis (see later).
What are the symptoms of endemic syphilis?
Also known as endemic syphilis, bejel is characterized by lesions of the skin and bones that begin in the mouth and progress in gradual stages. The late stages are the most severe. Bejel is very common in dry, hot climates especially in the countries of the eastern Mediterranean region and in Saharan West Africa.
How do you prevent bejel?
Widespread use of penicillin has been responsible for reducing the number of existing cases, but the only way to eliminate bejel is by improving living and sanitation conditions and through continuing health education.
Is syphilis endemic or epidemic?
Additionally, in Western Europe, the USA, and China, large increases in syphilis have been seen among key populations like men who have sex with men (MSM) [8, 9]. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [10, 11], syphilis has remained endemic [12-15].
What is rabbit Treponematosis?
Treponematosis is a disease of domestic and wild rabbits caused by Treponema paraluiscuniculi (formerly T. cuniculi), a spirochete similar to T. pallidum, the causative agent of human syphilis. The disease is characterized by inflammatory lesions of the genitalia.
What causes rabbit syphilis?
How did my rabbit get syphilis? Rabbits get syphilis from other infected rabbits through sexual contact, direct contact with the sores of an infected rabbit or at birth during vaginal passage. Your rabbit likely came with the infection.
What are treponemal infections of humans?
Treponemal infections of humans have a worldwide distribution and include both venereal syphilis, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and the endemic treponematoses, which include yaws ( T. pallidum subsp. pertenue ), pinta ( Treponema carateum ), and endemic syphilis ( T. pallidum subsp. endemicum ).
What is the pathophysiology of Treponematosis?
Treponematosis is a term used to individually describe any of the diseases caused by four members of the bacterial genus Treponema. The four diseases are collectively referred to as treponematoses: Traditional laboratory tests cannot distinguish the treponematoses. However, sequence differences among the T. pallidum subspecies have been identified.
What is the difference between venereal syphilis and Treponematosis?
Although venereal syphilis is a worldwide problem associated with sexual transmission by persons with multiple sexual partners, endemic treponematoses are primarily childhood diseases that are most common in tropical regions and are usually spread from person to person by direct, nonsexual contact.
What are nonvenereal treponematoses?
The nonvenereal treponematoses–yaws, endemic syphilis, and pinta–constitute a major health concern for many third world countries. These diseases are caused by an organism that is morphologically and antigenically identical to the causative agent of venereal syphilis, Treponema pallidum.