What does myeloma look like on MRI?

What does myeloma look like on MRI?

MRI is useful for imaging multiple myeloma because of its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution. The typical appearance of a myeloma deposit is a round, low signal intensity (relative to muscle) focus on T1-weighted images, which becomes high in signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences.

Does myeloma show on MRI?

An MRI can show if normal bone marrow has been replaced by myeloma cells or by a plasmacytoma, especially in the skull, spine, and pelvis. A plasmacytoma is a plasma cell tumor growing in bone or soft tissue. The detailed images may also show compression fractures of the spine or a tumor pressing on nerve roots.

What is the radiographic appearance of multiple myeloma?

The classic radiographic appearance of multiple myeloma is that of multiple, small, well-circumscribed, lytic, punched-out, round lesions within the skull, spine, and pelvis. The pattern of lytic or punched-out radiolucent lesions on the skull have been described as resembling raindrops hitting a surface and splashing.

Can multiple myeloma be seen on a bone scan?

In multiple myeloma the osteoblastic response to bone destruction is negligible. The bone scan is often therefore normal or may show areas of decreased uptake (photopaenia). Most studies have shown that the sensitivity of skeletal scintigraphy for detecting individual deposits ranges from 40 to 60% [14, 15].

What are the markers for multiple myeloma?

Diagnosing Multiple Myeloma

  • High blood calcium level.
  • Poor kidney function.
  • Low red blood cell counts (anemia)
  • Holes in the bones from tumor found on imaging studies (CT, MRI, PET scan)
  • Increase in one type of light chain in the blood so that one type is 100 times more common than the other.

Can you have myeloma without bone lesions?

Many affected individuals exhibit M-proteins in the urine and blood but have no other evidence of the symptoms of multiple myeloma such as anemia, bone lesions or kidney failure. Individuals with smoldering multiple myeloma may eventually develop multiple myeloma.

Can a routine blood test detect multiple myeloma?

Doctor’s Response. In many cases, myeloma is discovered when blood tests, done as part of a routine physical examination or for some other reason, reveal anemia or a high calcium level, or a high level of protein (or, less commonly, a low level of protein). A urine test may show protein in the urine.

What is mild endosteal scalloping?

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to benign etiology.

Why bone scan is not useful in multiple myeloma?

Bone scintigraphy Therefore, bone scans usually do not contribute significant information to the workup of patients with suspected or established disseminated multiple myeloma, as the sensitivity of detecting lesions is less than that of a plain film skeletal survey 7.

What conditions are mistaken for myeloma?

Conditions That Can Look Like Multiple Myeloma

  • Arthritis.
  • Back Injury.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Kidney Disease.
  • Amyloidosis.
  • Diabetes.
  • Lyme Disease.
  • Hypercalcemia.

Which MRI findings are characteristic of multiple myeloma?

• Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI diagnoses multiple myeloma by assessing vascularization and perfusion. • Diffusion weighted imaging evaluates bone marrow composition and cellularity in multiple myeloma. • Combined morphological and functional MRI provides optimal bone marrow assessment for staging.

What does disseminated multiple myeloma look like on a bone scan?

The bone scan appearance of patients with disseminated multiple myeloma is variable due to the potential lack of osteoblastic activity. Larger lesions may be either hyperactive (hot) or photopenic (cold). Bone scans may also be normal.

Is imaging required to diagnose multiple myeloma (MM)?

As imaging is not required to diagnose multiple myeloma, assessment of treatment response does not necessitate imaging studies, with the exception of so-called “imaging plus minimal residual disease negative” status, which requires FDG PET.

Can a smoldering myeloma patient have an MRI scan?

detect focal lesions (early abnormal areas in the bone) in patients with smoldering myeloma MRIs pose at least a nine-month lag before these scans will look normal after an area of myeloma has been successfully treated and is no longer active. Patients who have metal implants may not be able to have MRIs.