What is a subendocardial myocardial infarction?

What is a subendocardial myocardial infarction?

A subendocardial infarct results in necrosis exclusively inolving the innermost aspect of the myocardium. Usually a subendocardial infarct is the result of a partially occluded epicardial coronary artery (i.e. NSTEMI).

What is the initial treatment for myocardial infarction?

Although the immediate priority in managing acute myocardial infarction is thrombolysis and reperfusion of the myocardium, a variety of other drug therapies such as heparin, β-adrenoceptor blockers, magnesium and insulin might also be considered in the early hours.

What causes Subendocardial myocardial infarction?

Regional infarcts are due to lack of blood flow that occurs when an epicardial artery is blocked by atheroma or thrombus, or other obstructions. Global subendocardial infarcts occur when there is lack of oxygenation despite circulation—for example, when there is a respiratory arrest followed by prolonged hypoxemia.

What are the ways to prevent myocardial infarction?

Lifestyle Changes

  1. Stop smoking. If you smoke, quit.
  2. Choose good nutrition. A healthy diet is one of the best weapons you have to fight cardiovascular disease.
  3. High blood cholesterol.
  4. Lower high blood pressure.
  5. Be physically active every day.
  6. Aim for a healthy weight.
  7. Manage diabetes.
  8. Reduce stress.

Where is the subendocardial layer?

The endocardium is composed of the endothelium and the subendothelial connective tissue layer. The subendocardium is found between the endocardium and myocardium and contains the impulse-conducting system.

What is the goal for PCI when treating a patient?

The goal of PCI in these patients is to keep neurological function intact to increase survival.

How do you prevent another AMI?

Lifestyle modifications

  1. Smoking cessation. For those patients who smoke, quitting is a top priority.
  2. Physical activity. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for recurrent MI.
  3. Diet.
  4. Weight management.
  5. Diabetes.
  6. Lipid management.
  7. Blood pressure.
  8. Metabolic syndrome.

What are the prevention of cardiovascular disease?

Prevention of cardiovascular disease can be achieved by practising regular exercise, by keeping to a balanced healthy diet, by avoiding tobacco smoking and by the maintenance of an optimal blood pressure and normal LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels.

What is the difference between a transmural and subendocardial infarction?

Discussion. The results of this study are that subendocardial infarction is associated with a significant reduction in longitudinal S and SR, whereas radial and circumferential function are relatively preserved. In contrast, transmural infarction is associated with a reduction of both long-axis and short-axis function.

Why is Subendocardium more prone to ischemia?

Subendocardial vulnerability to ischemia has been previously attributed to several mechanisms, namely, the greater subendocardial systolic compression was proposed to induce one or more of the following: 1) increased subendocardial vessel resistance (5, 36), 2) systolic backflow from endocardial to epicardial vessels ( …

What are the 5 types of myocardial infarction?

– Type 2 MI – Type 1 MI (NSTEMI) – Demand ischemia only – Unstable angina only – Other, please specify: – None of the above / Not applicable

What medications cause myocardial infarction?


  • Thrombolytics,to dissolve the clot
  • Antiplatelet agents
  • Analgesics,such as morphine for pain relief
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Other medications,such as beta-blockers,ACE inhibitors,and statins
  • Surgery
  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • What are the risk factors of myocardial infarction?


  • Abnormal lipid profile/blood apolipoprotein (raised ApoB/ApoA1)
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Abdominal obesity (waist/hip ratio) (greater than 0.90 for males and greater than 0.85 for females)
  • Why does ECG show an old infarction?

    What does old infarct mean on ECG? If the finding on an ECG is “septal infarct, age undetermined,” it means that the patient possibly had a heart attack at an undetermined time in the past. A second test is typically taken to confirm the finding, because the results may instead be due to incorrect placement of electrodes on the chest during