What is circumferential margin?

What is circumferential margin?

Circumferential resection margin (CRM) is the closest distance between the radial resection margin and the tumor tissue by either direct tumor spread, areas of neural or vascular invasion, or the nearest involved lymph node.

What is a mesenteric margin?

Mesentric margin is evaluated grossly for tumor involvement for segments with mesentery (transverse and sigmoid colon). The distance of tumor to the mesenteric margin should be described. For other portions of colon (cecum, ascending, descending, and rectum), there is no mesenteric margin.

What does distal margin mean?

The distal resection margin (DRM) is defined as the distance of the lowest intramural or mesorectal cancer spread and the distal dissection line of the specimen. Therefore, DRM is of major importance for the decision if sphincter preserving low rectal cancer surgery is feasible [3].

What does CRM-positive mean?

CRM involvement was defined as a distance from the circumference margin of ≤1 mm. 9. Patients were divided into two groups: “CRM-positive group” (CRM ≤1 mm) and “CRM-negative group” (CRM >1 mm) according to the shortest distance between the CRM and the tumor (Fig. 1).

What is circumferential resection?

Circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used to denote the standard plane of excision of total mesorectal excision, used for resection of rectal cancers. The anatomic correlate is the mesorectal fascia.

What is partial Mesorectal excision?

Anterior resections involving the upper rectum may be completed with mobilization of the rectum to beyond 5 cm of the lower margin of the tumor, and which is often above the level of the levator and is sometimes referred to as partial mesorectal excision.

What does radial margin mean?

The radial margin represents the adventitial soft tissue margin of the colon, which can be either partially peritonealized (in the ascending, descending, and rectosigmoid colon) or completely peritonealized.

What is a lateral margin?

Deep margins are located at the base of the biopsy/specimen and lateral/peripheral margins are the side edges of the biopsy/specimen.

What is CRM rectum?

Circumferential resection margin (CRM) in rectal cancer has been defined as the non-peritonealized surface of a resection specimen created by dissection of the subperitoneal aspect at surgery. 6. CRM involvement occurs at a rate ranging from 7.3 to 25%.

What is marginal analysis?

Marginal analysis compares the additional benefits derived from an activity and the extra cost incurred by the same activity. It serves as a decision-making tool in projecting the maximum potential profits for the company by comparing the costs and benefits of the activity.

What happens when the marginal benefit is greater than the marginal cost?

From the marginal analysis formula, we can see that if the marginal benefit is greater than the marginal cost, then there will be a positive change in net benefits. In this case, the additional unit should be added.

What is marginal cost?

The term “marginal” is used by economists to refer to the changes resulting from one unit change in activity. It is concerned with the incremental cost and benefit stemming from a change in production.

What is the second rule of profit maximization using marginal analysis?

The second rule of profit maximization using marginal analysis states that an activity should be performed until it yields the same marginal return for every unit of effort.