What is HTK blood test?
HTK solution is intended for perfusion and flushing of donor liver, kidney, heart, lung and pancreas prior to removal from the donor and for preserving these organs during hypothermic storage and transport to the recipient.
What is histidine and tryptophan?
Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate Solution The basic design of the solution consists of a very potent buffer, histidine, combined with two amino acids (Table 9-2). Tryptophan serves as a membrane stabilizer and antioxidant while ketoglutarate acts as a substrate for anaerobic metabolism during preservation.
What is Custodiol HTK solution?
Custodiol® HTK solution is approved for perfusion and irrigation of donor organs, such as kidneys, liver, pancreas and heart, before or immediately after being extracted from the donor. The solution is maintained in the vasculature of the organ during hypothermic storage and transport to its recipient.
How does Custodiol cardioplegia work?
Custodiol® solution, also called histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) or Bretschneider’s solution, is a particular kind of long-acting intracellular crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) that differs from other extracellular cardioplegic solutions because of its low sodium and potassium content that induce the diastolic …
What is Custodiol cardioplegia?
Custodiol is an intracellular crystalloid cardioplegic solution used by some centres for myocardial protection in complex cardiac surgery and for organ preservation in transplant surgery.
What is the functional group of arginine?
Like all of the amino acids, arginine has two functional groups, a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amine group (NH2). It has one of the most complex side chains (CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-CNH-NH2). Arginine is the most basic of the amino acids that in turn form the building blocks of proteins.
What is a cardioplegic solution?
Solution. Cardioplegia Solution A is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution for cardiac perfusion in a Viaflex bag. It is used to induce cardiac stasis and to protect the myocardium during open-heart surgery.
What is buckberg cardioplegia?
Modified Buckberg cardioplegia is a dextrose-based solution in normal saline with potassium chloride as the depolarizing agent, tromethamine as the buffer, and citrate phosphate double dextrose as a calcium chelator and delivered 4:1 oxygenated patient’s blood to crystalloid.
Can tryptophan form hydrogen bonds?
In proteins, the indole side chain of tryptophan can interact with water molecules either in-plane, forming hydrogen bonds, or out-of-plane, with the water molecule contacting the aromatic π face.
Does tryptophan lower dopamine?
l-tryptophan may deplete dopamine.
What is histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate solution used for?
Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate Solution HTK solution was initially introduced as a cardioplegic solution in open heart surgery by Bretschneider in the 1970s. 39 The solution consists of a very potent buffer, histidine, combined with two amino acids (see Table 9-1).
What is histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate?
The histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution was first introduced in the 1970s as a cardioplegic solution in open heart surgery.49 The HTK solution is increasingly being used by some centers as a preservation solution for kidneys.
What is the difference between ketoglutarate and tryptophan?
Tryptophan serves as a membrane stabilizer and antioxidant, whereas ketoglutarate acts as a substrate for anaerobic metabolism during preservation. The HKT has a low viscosity and contains less potassium and a strong histidine buffer that increases the osmotic effect of mannitol.
What is the role of histidine in cardioplegia?
Finally, histidine is thought to aid buffering, mannitol and tryptophan to improve membrane stability, and ketoglutarate to help ATP production during reperfusion. A 2021 meta-analysis demonstrated no statistical advantage of HTK over blood or other crystalloid cardioplegias during adult cardiac surgery.