What is isoniazid drug used for?

What is isoniazid drug used for?

Isoniazid is used with other medications to treat active tuberculosis (TB) infections. It is also used alone to prevent active TB infections in people who may be infected with the bacteria (people with positive TB skin test). Isoniazid is an antibiotic and works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

What is isoniazid mode of action?

Mechanism of action — The antimicrobial activity of INH is selective for mycobacteria, likely due to its ability to inhibit mycolic acid synthesis, which interferes with cell wall synthesis, thereby producing a bactericidal effect [1].

How is isoniazid activated?

Isoniazid must be activated by KatG, a bacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. KatG catalyzes the formation of the isonicotinic acyl radical, which spontaneously couples with NADH to form the nicotinoyl-NAD adduct.

How is isoniazid cleared?

Both INH and its inactive metabolites are excreted in the urine, and 75% to 95% of a single dose is eliminated within 24 hours. Twenty-seven percent of INH is excreted unchanged in slow acetylators, in contrast to 11% in fast acetylators.

Is isoniazid a chemotherapy drug?

PRINCIPLES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS CHEMOTHERAPY Isoniazid is responsible for the initial kill of about 95% organisms during the first two days of treatment. Its bactericidal role is then replaced by rifampicin and pyrazinamide during the intensive phase.

What class of drug is isoniazid?

Isoniazid is in a class of medications called antituberculosis agents. It works by killing the bacteria that cause tuberculosis.

What is isoniazid monotherapy?

Six months’ daily monotherapy with isoniazid is the standard treatment for both adults and children living in countries with either high or low TB incidence. Several systematic reviews have demonstrated its preventive efficacy.

Is isoniazid an inducer or inhibitor?

Isoniazid is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C19 and 3A4 isoforms in human liver microsomes.

Is isoniazid bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

The bactericidal activity of isoniazid was strongest. The bactericidal activity of isoniazid and streptomycin was most marked in the log phase. M. avium complex and M.

What is the side effect of isoniazid?

Common side effects may include: numbness, tingling, or burning pain in your hands or feet; nausea, vomiting, upset stomach; or. abnormal liver function tests.

Is isoniazid the same as rifampin?

It contains 2 medications: rifampin and isoniazid. Both medications are antibiotics. Rifampin is known as a rifamycin antibiotic. This product works by stopping the growth of bacteria.