What is the main mechanism of antibiotic resistance for carbapenem?

What is the main mechanism of antibiotic resistance for carbapenem?

There are three major mechanisms by which Enterobacteriaceae become resistant to carbapenems: enzyme production, efflux pumps and porin mutations. Of these, enzyme production is the main resistance mechanism.

What are the four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms fall into four main categories: (1) limiting uptake of a drug; (2) modifying a drug target; (3) inactivating a drug; (4) active drug efflux.

What is meant by carbapenem resistance?

Carbapenem resistance, mainly among Gram-negative pathogens, is an ongoing public-health problem of global dimensions. This type of antimicrobial resistance, especially when mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes, is spreading rapidly causing serious outbreaks and dramatically limiting treatment options.

What type of antibiotic is carbapenem?

Carbapenems are a subclass of antibiotics called beta-lactam antibiotics (that have a chemical structure called a beta-lactam ring).

Does clindamycin cause antibiotic resistance?

When we use clindamycin alone topically, even in acne, it is more likely to cause bacterial resistance. However, when we combine clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide, the chance of resistance decreases significantly.

How does clindamycin inhibit toxin production?

Clindamycin acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the 50S ribosome. As a result, it exerts a prolonged postantibiotic effect. It may decrease toxin production and increase microbial opsonization and phagocytosis even at subinhibitory concentrations.

What are three mechanisms of antibiotic resistance?

The three fundamental mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance are (1) enzymatic degradation of antibacterial drugs, (2) alteration of bacterial proteins that are antimicrobial targets, and (3) changes in membrane permeability to antibiotics.

What is inducible antibiotic resistance?

Inducible resistance is developed when a strong inducer of the methylase enzyme, erythromycin, is present. Such an isolate is susceptible to clindamycin but resistant to erythromycin. D-zone effect or erythromycin induction of clindamycin resistance using the disk-diffusion method provides proof of this statement [12].

What antibiotics are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae resistant to?

In general, the presence of a carbapenemase confers broad resistance to most ß-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and the monobactam aztreonam (excluding metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs] and oxacillinases [OXAs]) [1].

What is the mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae?

Mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. (1) Reduced membrane permeability through modified porins, expression loss or shift in porin proteins in outer-membrane; (2) enzymatic inactivation by plasmid mediated or chromosomal enzymes (having hydrolytic activity); and (3) antibiotic efflux through efflux pump.

What is carbapenemase resistance?

This is an enzyme-mediated kind of resistance to carbapenems that involve the production of types of beta-lactamases that are able to inactivate carbapenems together with other beta-lactam antibiotics and therefore called carbapenemases (1).

What is the mechanism of clindamycin-erythromycin resistance in Bacteroides?

Clindamycin-erythromycin resistance in Bacteroides was first recognized in the mid-1970s and transferable resistance was described in 1979. The mechanism of resistance is probably similar to macrolide-lincosamide-streptinogramin-resistance seen in aerobic bacteria.

What is the mechanism of carbapenem therapy?

This essay is giving some details about the mechanisms of CR, the epidemiology, and the clinical impact of CRPA. Carbapenems, amongst the beta-lactams, are the most effective antibiotics against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria presenting a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.