What are the 5 toxidromes?
The most commonly encountered toxidromes are the: (a) anticholinergic, (b) cholinergic, (c) opioid, (d) sedative-hypnotic, and (e) sympathomimetic (also known as the adrenergic or stimulant) toxidromes.
Why are toxidromes important?
Toxic syndrome or toxidrome recognition is important because it provides a tool for rapid detection of the suspected cause and can focus the differential diagnosis to consideration of only a few chemicals with similar toxic effects.
Which signs and symptoms from the cholinergic toxidrome are the most life threatening?
Excess acetylcholine in the brain patients may cause headache, insomnia, giddiness, confusion, and drowsiness. More severe exposures may cause central depression resulting in slurred speech, convulsions, coma, and respiratory depression. Death can occur due to effects on the heart, respiration, and brain.
What medication is used for cholinergic crisis?
Two types of antidotes are used for a cholinergic crisis: atropine and oximes. Atropine does not have any effect on the nicotinic receptors. For the nicotinic effect in cholinergic crisis, the antidote is a class of drugs called the “oximes.” Examples of oximes are pralidoxime and obidoxime.
What do you mean by toxidromes?
Lystrup: The word toxidrome describes a group of signs and symptoms and/or characteristic effects associated with exposure to a particular substance or class of substances. Toxidromes are analogous to groups of symptoms associated with certain medical conditions.
How do you reduce anticholinergic effects?
The first step for a physician is to decrease the dose of the antipsychotic. Dose reduction may sometimes ameliorate the anticholinergic effects. Changing to an antipsychotic with a lesser anticholinergic profile can also prevent the continuation of symptoms.
How do you reverse anticholinergic effects?
The antidote for anticholinergic toxicity is physostigmine salicylate. Physostigmine is the only reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor capable of directly antagonizing the CNS manifestations of anticholinergic toxicity; it is an uncharged tertiary amine that efficiently crosses the blood-brain barrier.