What are the interleukins and how do they impact immune function?

What are the interleukins and how do they impact immune function?

Interleukins (IL) are a type of cytokine first thought to be expressed by leukocytes alone but have later been found to be produced by many other body cells. They play essential roles in the activation and differentiation of immune cells, as well as proliferation, maturation, migration, and adhesion.

Are interleukins innate or adaptive?

Interleukin (IL)-12 is especially important because its expression during infection regulates innate responses and determines the type and duration of adaptive immune response. IL-12 induces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by NK, T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and macrophages.

What does IL-12 do to T cells?

IL-12 has been shown to increase CD8+ T cell cytolysis, survival, proliferation, and influence the ability of these lymphocytes to migrate to inflammatory foci (24–29, 37–39). A more recently recognized activity of IL-23 is the ability to stimulate the production of IL-17 by CD4+ T cells.

Is IL-12 anti inflammatory?

IL-12 can aid in the activation and regulation of several cytotoxic immune cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, and T cells, thus making it a ‘pro-inflammatory cytokine’.

What is an IL-12 inhibitor?

Abstract. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine produced by a variety of immune effector cells that leads to a type 1 helper T cell (Th1) response. IL-12 also directs T cells to the skin via induction of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) expression.

Which Interleukin is of innate immunity?

Interleukin-15 as a potential regulator of the innate immune response.

What causes IL-12 production?

Interleukin-10 and Interleukin-12 are produced primarily by pathogen-activated antigen-presenting cells, particularly macrophages and dendritic cells.

What is interleukin in immunology?

What are the pro-inflammatory functions of interleukin-12 (IL-12)?

The pro-inflammatory functions of interleukin-12 (IL-12), as well as its ability to stimulate innate resistance and to generate a T helper 1 (T H 1)-type immune response, are essential for resistance to different types of infection.

What is the role of IFNs in innate resistance to pathogens?

The importance of IFNs in innate resistance is not only owing to their antiviral activity, but also to their ability to regulate the functions of cells of innate and adaptive immunity.

Why is interleukin-12 important for resistance to fibrosarcoma?

Endogenous interleukin-12 (IL-12) is important for resistance to transplantable tumours 129 and to carcinogenesis-induced fibrosarcomata 130. Treatment with IL-12 has been shown to have a marked anti-tumour effect on mouse tumours, by inhibiting establishment of tumours or by inducing regression of established tumours 131, 132, 133, 134.

Does interleukin-12 regulate nuclear γ-Interferon gene expression?

Hodge, D. L., Martinez, A., Julias, J. G., Taylor, L. S. & Young, H. A. Regulation of nuclear γ-interferon gene expression by interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-2 represents a novel form of posttranscriptional control. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 1742–1753 (2002).