What does COX-1 and 2 produce?

What does COX-1 and 2 produce?

There are two types of COX enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. Both enzymes produce prostaglandins that promote inflammation, pain, and fever; however, only COX-1 produces prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the stomach and intestinal lining.

What do COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes do?

The cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, catalyze the formation of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and levuloglandins. The prostaglandins are autocoid mediators that affect virtually all known physiological and pathological processes via their reversible interaction with G-protein coupled membrane receptors.

What role does cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 play in pain and inflammation?

The enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) H2, the precursor of PGs and thromboxane. These lipid mediators play important roles in inflammation and pain and in normal physiological functions.

What are COX-2 inhibitors used for?

COX-2 inhibitors (such as Celebrex and Bextra) are a type of NSAID and are the most commonly prescribed drugs for arthritis. COX-2 inhibitors are also prescribed for many forms of back pain.

What is the role of COX-2?

COX-2 is the enzyme largely responsible for causing inflammation, a common mechanism of disease. A study now reports that derivatives generated by COX-2 from naturally occurring ω-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory mediators.

What is the function of COX-2 enzyme?

Cox-2 is the inducible form of cyclo-oxygenase and catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Cox-2 is expressed by inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, and can be induced by TNF and EGF.

What is the role of COX-1 in inflammation?

Conclusions: COX-1 makes an important contribution to inflammatory responses. To achieve desirable anti-inflammatory effects, COX-2 inhibitors needed to be given at doses in which selectivity was lost, leading to suppression of gastric prostaglandin synthesis and to mucosal injury.

How are the structures of COX-1 and COX-2 different?

The most significant difference between the two isoforms is the size and shape of the inhibitor binding sites within the COX active site. COX-2 has a secondary internal pocket off the inhibitor binding site that is not observed in COX-1. The inhibitor binding site in COX-2 is 25% larger than that in COX-1 [24].

What are COX-1 inhibitors?

Cox-1 inhibitor: An agent that inhibits the action of the enzyme cox-1 (cyclooxygenase-1). The common anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen block the action of both cox-1 and cox-2.

What are the effects the nurse would expect from a drug that blocks both COX-1 and COX-2?

Common NSAIDs such as aspirin block both COX-1 and COX-2 (see below). When the COX-1 enzyme is blocked, inflammation is reduced, but the protection of the lining of the stomach also is lost. This can cause stomach upset as well as ulceration and bleeding from the stomach and even the intestines.

What is the role of COX-2 in the treatment of pain?

The role of COX-2 in acute pain and the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors for acute pain relief Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the mainstay of therapy for the management of acute pain. Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme is of particular interest because it is the major target of NSAIDs.

What is the role of COX enzyme in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)?

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the mainstay of therapy for the management of acute pain. Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme is of particular interest because it is the major target of NSAIDs.

What are COX-2 inhibitors and how do they work?

COX-2 inhibitors target pain and inflammation with fewer gastrointestinal side effects. They also don’t seem to affect platelets the way non-selective NSAIDs do, which means that COX-2 inhibitors may not increase bleeding risk as much as COX-1 inhibitors when used with blood thinners, like warfarin.

What is the function of Cox 1 and Cox 2?

In the gastrointestinal tract, COX-1 maintains the normal lining of the stomach and intestines, protecting the stomach from the digestive juices. The enzyme is also involved in kidney and platelet function. COX-2, on the other hand, is primarily found at sites of inflammation.